Cipro – AntiBacterial Agent To Fight Infections
Cipro has a wide spectrum of antimicrobial action. It is the most active against gram-negative bacteria. The effect on anaerobes is less pronounced. It is recommended to buy this antibiotic to treat bacterial infections. Cipro is applied for dogs, as well.
What type of infections does Cipro treat?
- For systemic use: bacterial infections caused by sensitive microorganisms: ENT organs (sinusitis, otitis media, frontal sinusitis, mastoiditis, sinusitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis), pelvic organs (pyelonephritis, cystitis, prostatitis, salpingitis, adnexitis, oophoritis, tubular abscess , endometritis, pelvioperitonitis), lower respiratory tract (acute and exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, pneumonia, cystic fibrosis), soft tissues and skin (infected wounds, ulcers, burns, phlegmon, abscess), joints and bones (septic arthritis, osteomyelitis);
- Infections of the abdominal organs (gastrointestinal tract, biliary tract and gallbladder, peritonitis, intraperitoneal abscesses, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, typhoid fever, yersiniosis, cholera, shigellosis); sexually transmitted diseases (chancre, gonorrhea, chlamydia); septicemia, bacteremia;
- Severe infections with neutropenia and immunodeficiency;
- Prevention of infections during surgical interventions.
Ophthalmology: infectious and inflammatory diseases of the eyes (blepharitis, subacute and acute conjunctivitis, blepharoconjunctivitis, keratoconjunctivitis, keratitis, bacterial corneal ulcer, meibomitis, chronic dacryocystitis, preoperative eye lesions after ingestion of foreign bodies or trauma) ophthalmic surgery.
What bacteria does Сipro kill?
This antibacterial agent acts on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter diversus, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia rettgeri , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia stuartii, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Serratia marcescens, Shigella sonnei, Acinetobacter spp., Staphylococcus hominis, Aeromonas caviae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella oxytoca, Haemophilus ducreyi, Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Neisseria meningitidis, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pasteurella multocida, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella enteritidis, Vibrio, Vibrio vulnificus, Chlamydia trachomatis.
How long does it take to work?
According to Cipro reviews, it starts acting within several hours already. The maximum effect will be achieved only if the course is undergone completely.
How to take this drug?
- Respiratory tract infections (depending on the severity of the infection and the patient’s condition): from 500 mg 2 times a day to 750 mg 2 times a day;
- Infections of the genitourinary system: acute, uncomplicated: Cipro dosage from 250 mg 2 times a day to 500 mg 2 times a day;
- Cystitis in women (before menopause): 500 mg once a day; complicated: from 500 mg 2 times a day to 750 mg 2 times a day; genital infections (except for gonorrhea): from 500 mg 2 times a day to 750 mg 2 times a day;
- Gonorrhea: 500 mg once a day, once;- diarrhea: 500 mg 2 times a day;
- Other infections: 500 mg 2 times a day; especially severe, life-threatening (especially in the presence of Pseudomonasspp., Staphylococcusspp., Streptococcusspp.), incl. streptococcal pneumonia, infections of bones and joints, septicemia, peritonitis: 750 mg 2 times a day.
Children and adolescents
- The treatment of complications caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in children from 5 to 17 years old with pulmonary cystic fibrosis – 20 mg/kg 2 times a day (maximum dose 1500 mg). The duration of treatment is 10-14 days.
- Pulmonary anthrax (prevention and treatment) – 15 mg/kg 2 times a day. The maximum single dose is 500 mg, the daily dose is 1000 mg. The total duration of this application is 60 days.
How many days should I take ciprofloxacin 500mg?
The course duration depends on the severity of the disease, clinical and bacteriological control. It is important to continue treatment systematically for at least 3 days after the disappearance of fever or other clinical symptoms. Average duration of treatment:
- 1 day for acute uncomplicated gonorrhea and cystitis;
- up to 7 days with kidney, urinary tract infections, intra-abdominal infections;
- the entire period of neutropenia in immunocompromised patients;
- no more than 2 months with osteomyelitis;
- 7 to 14 days for other infections.
For infections caused by Streptococcusspp., due to the risk of late complications, treatment should be continued for at least 10 days; for infections caused by Chlamydiaspp., treatment should also be continued for at least 10 days.
What to avoid when taking Cipro?
- Hypersensitivity to ciprofloxacin and other drugs of the quinolone group and excipients;
- Children’s age (up to 18 years – until the completion of the skeletal formation process, except for the treatment of complications caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in children with cystic fibrosis from 5 to 17 years old;
- Prevention and treatment of pulmonary form anthrax;
- Concomitant use with tizanidine (risk of a pronounced decrease in blood pressure, drowsiness);
- Ppregnancy, lactation.
What are the most common side effects?
- The central and peripheral nervous system: infrequently – dizziness, headache, increased fatigue; rarely – insomnia, tremor; very rarely – anxiety, “nightmares”, peripheral paralgesia (abnormality in the perception of pain), increased sweating, increased intracranial pressure, including benign intracranial hypertension, confusion, depression, hallucinations, as well as other manifestations of psychotic reactions, migraine, fainting, cerebral thrombosis arteries, agitation, disorientation, paresthesia and dysesthesia, hypesthesia, convulsions, vertigo, impaired coordination of movements, impaired gait, hyperesthesia, peripheral neuropathy and polyneuropathy, epileptic seizures.
- The organs of senses: infrequently – taste disturbances; rarely – visual disturbances, tinnitus, hearing loss; very rarely – impaired sense of smell, impaired color perception, hearing impairment.
- The cardiovascular system: in very rare cases – tachycardia, other cardiac arrhythmias, decreased blood pressure, prolongation of the QT interval, ventricular arrhythmias.
- The digestive system: infrequently – nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, flatulence, decreased appetite and the amount of food taken; rarely – cholestatic jaundice (especially in patients with previous liver diseases), pancreatitis; very rarely – hepatitis, hepatonecrosis.
- The hematopoietic system: infrequently – eosinophilia, leukopenia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia; very rarely – leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, hemolytic anemia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis, pancytopenia, suppression of bone marrow hematopoiesis, serum sickness, albuminuria; very rarely – glomerulonephritis, urethral bleeding, decreased nitrogen excretory function of the kidneys, interstitial nephritis, renal failure.
- The respiratory system: rarely – respiratory failure (including bronchospasm).
- Allergic reactions: infrequently – itchy skin, urticaria, blistering accompanied by bleeding, the appearance of small nodules that form scabs, drug fever, pinpoint hemorrhages on the skin (petechiae); rarely – swelling of the face or larynx, shortness of breath, eosinophilia, increased photosensitivity; very rarely – vasculitis, erythema nodosum, exudative erythema multiforme (including Stevens-Johnson syndrome), toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell’s syndrome), anaphylactic reactions, anaphylactic shock.
- The laboratory parameters: infrequently – increased activity of “hepatic” transaminases and alkaline phosphatase, hyperbilirubinemia; rarely – a change in the content of prothrombin, hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, increased amylase activity; frequency unknown – hypercreatininemia.
- Others: infrequently – hot flushes, rarely – arthralgia, arthritis, tendovaginitis; very rarely – tendon ruptures (mainly Achilles), asthenia, myalgia, increased muscle tone, muscle weakness, exacerbation of symptoms of myasthenia gravis, superinfection (candidiasis, pseudomembranous colitis); frequency unknown – acute generalized pustular exanthema.
How to recover from side effects?
The specific antidote is unknown. It is necessary to carefully monitor the patient’s condition, carry out gastric lavage and other emergency measures, and ensure sufficient fluid intake. In order to prevent the development of crystalluria, it is recommended to monitor renal function, including pH and acidity of urine.
Is 3 days of Cipro enough for UTI?
It is not enough to take Cipto for 3 days to treat UTI. The therapy duration is 7-10 days if the infection is not complicated.
How long after taking this antibiotic can I eat dairy?
If the drug is used on an empty stomach, the active substance is absorbed faster. In this case, the tablets should not be taken with dairy products or calcium-fortified beverages (eg milk, yogurt, juices with a high calcium content). Calcium contained in regular food does not affect the absorption of ciprofloxacin. After the course completed, a patient may take any products he/she likes.
How long after Cipro can you drink alcohol?
It is better to avoid combining alcohol and Cipro for several days after the course is completed. It is necessary for the main drug components to excrete from the body completely. It is not recommended to take substances toxic to the body together with antibiotics. In combination with alcohol, the effect is markedly reduced. Penetrating into the blood, and then into the liver, the antibiotic exerts a great load on the hepatic cells, so it can no longer cope with other toxic substances. Therefore, alcohol remains in the liver unprocessed, and, accumulating, leads to intoxication of the whole organism.
Changes occur in the liver, which are manifested by the following reactions:
- disorders of the central nervous system;
- disturbances in the work of the heart and blood vessels;
- a sharp increase or decrease in blood pressure;
- malfunctions of the kidneys, etc.
How does it make you feel?
This antibiotic is not able to affect the human body more strongly than other drugs like it. All antibiotics are harmful to some extent. There are no useful antibiotics. That is why they should only be taken in extreme cases. If you take this drug based on the doctor’s instructions, then nothing will happen. It is quickly eliminated from the body within 48 hours.
Why is Cipro bad?
Scientists from the University of Eastern Finland claimed that this antibiotic is much more dangerous than was commonly thought. It damages the mitochondrial genome, which supplies energy to cells.
After taking this drug, mitochondrial energy production is disrupted and cell growth and differentiation is blocked.
Mitochondria are the energy base of cells. They have their own little genome. It requires enzymes called topoisomerases, which regulate the topology of DNA in mitochondria. However, antibiotics fluoroquinolones, kill pathogenic bacteria by inhibiting their DNA gyrase, but at the same time they inhibit topoisomerase II of our own mitochondria, preventing the replication of the mitochondrial genome.
It is these processes that determine most of the side effects when taking fluoroquinolones. The most severe of these are sensorimotor polyneuropathy, gendevitis, and tendon ruptures.
Meanwhile, fluoroquinolone antibiotics are among the most commonly used broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs. They are prescribed by doctors to treat respiratory, ear, or urinary tract infections. It is hardly possible to replace them with safer Cipro alternatives. But information about mitochondrial damage is another signal not to use antibiotics unless absolutely necessary.